ASHWANI KUMAR on 11/16/2022 4:21:15 AM

What is generator ?

Generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. It works based on principle of faraday's law of electromagnetic induction

Principle of generator:

Generators work on the principle of Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction which states that electromotive force -EMF or voltage – is generated in a current-carrying conductor that cuts a uniform magnetic field.This can either be achieved by rotating a conducting coil in a static magnetic field, or by rotating the magnetic field that contains the stationary conductor.


The various components of an AC generator are:


The field consists of coils of conductors that receive a voltage from the source and produce magnetic flux. The magnetic flux in the field cuts the armature to produce magnetic flux. This voltage is the output voltage of the AC generator.


The part of an AC generator in which the voltage is produced is known as an armature. This component primarily consists of coils of wire that are large enough to carry the full-load current of the generator.

Prime Mover:-

The component used to drive the AC generator is known as a prime mover. The prime mover could either be a diesel engine, a steam turbine, or a motor.


The rotating component of the generator is known as a rotor. The generator’s prime mover drives the rotor. Based on the type of generator, this component may either be the armature or the field. The rotor will be the armature if the voltage output is generated there; the rotor will be the field if the field excitation is applied there.


The stator of an AC generator is the stationary part. As the rotor, this component may be the armature or the field, depending on the type of generator. The stator will be the armature if the voltage output is generated there; the stator will be the field if the field excitation is applied there

Slip Rings:-

Slip rings are electrical connections that are used to transfer power to and fro from the rotor of an AC generator. They are typically designed to conduct the flow of current from a stationary device to a rotating one.

Working of a generator :-

Electric generators work on the principle of electromagnetic induction. 

A conductor coil (a copper coil tightly wound onto a metal core) is rotated rapidly between the poles of a horseshoe type magnet. The conductor coil along with its core is known as an armature. The armature is connected to a shaft of a mechanical energy source such as a motor and rotated. The mechanical energy required can be provided by engines operating on fuels such as diesel, petrol, natural gas, etc. or renewable energy sources such as a wind turbine, water turbine, solar-powered turbine, etc. When the coil rotates, it cuts the magnetic field which lies between the two poles of the magnet. The magnetic field will interfere with the electrons in the conductor to induce a flow of electric current inside it.

Types of generators

1.Portable Generators

Small, compact, and easy to carry or cart around, portable generators are typically fueled by gasoline, propane, or solar energy because these fuel sources are readily available. Gas and propane can both be sourced from a gas station, while solar energy comes directly from the sun. Their small size means that these generators are easily stored in a vehicle or kept in a shed or garage until they are needed.

2.Inverter Generators

Inverter generators can be whole-home generators or portable generators, but they differ in the way that they produce electricity. A standard generator produces electricity in a single-phase and can’t keep the flow of electricity steady. Inverter generators produce electricity in three phases, creating a high-frequency alternating current (AC), which is then inverted to a direct current (DC), and finally inverted once more to a stable AC output.

3.Standby Generators

A standby generator, also known as a backup generator, is a sizable, non-mobile power generation system designed to fulfill two purposes: provide enough power for a home or facility, and activate automatically if the power grid is down. Standby generators produce low-THD electricity (2% or less), making them safe for sensitive electronics.Standby generators serve the purpose of switching on automatically when grid power fails. These are very useful for residential apartments, hotels, restaurants, hospitals and commercial establishments connected to grid power.

4.Gasoline Generators

A gasoline generator is the most common type of generator and is a great option for lower-powered appliances and tools. When it comes to costs, gasoline generators tend to be the least expensive, but over time, the cost of the gas is more expensive than other fuels.Gasoline generators are available in small sizes, ideal for portable models, but the fuel is highly flammable. 

5.Diesel Generators

A diesel generator (sometimes known as a diesel genset) is a device that produces electricity by a combination of a diesel engine with an electric generator (commonly known as an alternator). This is a type of engine-generator and although most diesel compression ignition engines are designed to run on diesel fuel, specific models are approved to run on other liquid fuels or natural gas. Diesel generator sets are employed in places where there is no access to the power grid as an emergency power source if the grid fails, and for more complicated applications such as grid support, peak-lopping, and power grid export. Diesel generator size is crucial to avoid low-load or power shortages.

6.Solar Generators

Solar generators run on clean, renewable energy from the sun. It’s the only generator that can safely run indoors because there are no emissions. Solar generators often have low maintenance but are more expensive to purchase.

7.Hydrogen Generators

These machines are fueled by hydrogen gas and are designed with internal fuel cells to help manage the system’s fuel efficiency. Some of the advantages of purchasing a hydrogen generator are that they produce a higher power output than other generators, and they’re sturdy and pretty resistant to impact damage.

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